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郭永颐 先生介绍《美国洗染行业发展趋势》 2018-11-9

  
 
 
 
由于美国经济持续改善,房市逐渐回稳,洗衣设备销售也随之回升, 市调业者预估,美国洗衣产业2016年的销售可达131亿美元。
 
自助洗衣已是大多数美国人生活的一部分,美国自助洗衣服务已有50年以上的发展历史,全世界最大的自助洗衣市场也是在美国。洗衣产业主要包括:洗衣设备、洗衣用品及服务业。今(2016)年由于美国经济持续改善,房市逐渐回稳,洗衣设备销售逐渐回升,市调业者预估今年销售可达131亿美元。
 
洗衣设备 种类繁多功能各异

 
  
 
美国的家庭用洗衣机主要分为两种型式:滚筒式和搅拌式,各具不同的功能及优缺点。由于品牌众多所以竞争也相当激烈。美国最大的家电厂Whirlpool曾于2011年11月向美国联邦政府控诉韩国Samsung和LG低价倾销家庭用洗衣机,导致韩国销美的洗衣机一度被课高达82%的关税,造成销售量在美大跌38%。然而自美韩签订实施自由贸易协定后,韩国制洗衣机进口关税降低,全自动洗衣机降至0.9%、大型洗衣机降为0.7%及零组件降至1.8%。
 
目前家庭用洗衣设备主要的销售通路有百货公司、仓库超市、家庭建材修缮中心、家电及CE店,此外也在网络商店销售。工业用洗衣设备则主要是被应用于纺织业洗染布料或成衣的重型机器。例如石洗(stone washed)牛仔裤,品牌有Jensen、IPSOA、DC、Cissell、IPSO、B&C Technologies、UniMac、Braun。
 
美国的自助洗衣店到处林立,因此商用洗衣设备相当普及与种类繁多,大多是由批发商来销售及提供安装和维修的全套服务,主要的种类有:

 
 
一、投币或刷卡式自助洗衣机(Laundromats):市区自助洗衣店使用的洗衣机品牌有Whirlpool、Huebsch、Maytag、Speed Queen、Kenmore及Dexter。
 
二、建物内洗衣设备(On-premise Laundries, OPL):旅馆、医院、学校等公共场所内设置的大容量洗涤设备,如洗衣脱水机(Washer Extractors)、滚筒式烘干机(Drying Tumblers)、大型机械熨烫衣平台(Flatwork Ironers)。其品牌有UniMac、Huebsch、Speed Queen、Wascomat及Milnor。
 
三、复合家庭房屋洗衣设备:设置于公寓大楼、部队营区及露营区等,供公众使用。
 
四、干湿洗设备:一般洗衣店用于代客洗熨及需要除垢去渍、浸染的特别处理衣物设备。主要品牌有RealStar、Forenta、Sate、Sankosha、Columbia、Firbimatic、Eco Dry of America、Easy Clean、Union及Aero-Tech。
 
洗衣用品 品牌购买忠诚度高
 
近年美国洗衣用品的市场略显疲态,2008年至2012年都出现0.6%的年平均衰退率,2012年市场营收规模为93亿美元。衰退原因是由于经济未全面复甦、纺织技术进步使得布料排污功能增加、衣服洗濯需求减少,因此预期该类产品至2017年仍不会有明显成长。
 
由于洗衣机使用的普及与洗衣剂生产业者的大力推动,目前最受消费者欢迎的洗衣用品为洗衣液,占市场销售55%,约51亿美元。目前洗衣用品的主要业者有Procter & Gamble拥有Tide、Gain、Ariel、Bold及Downy品牌,市占率为59.2%。

 
 
洗衣用品的主要销售通路为超市占56.3%;独立商店37.4%;便利商店3.0%;仓库超市和批发商2.2%;其他路径1.0%。
 
根据Catalina市调研究,消费者年购买洗衣精的平均金额为43.76美元,而花在购买前五大品牌的平均金额则为24.45美元。此外,消费者购买同一品牌的忠诚度高达63%,会转品牌的则仅有23%。
 
洗衣服务 客户定位型态多样

 
 
 

 
 
 
洗衣业在美国的发展已颇有历史,各阶段的服务型式也随时代的演变与消费者需求而有所不同,目前主要的洗衣服务型式分为三类:
 
一、自助洗衣店:全美约有近三万家自助洗衣店,目前最大的业者为Coinmach占13.1%的市场;Mac-Gray占7.3%。自助洗衣店在过去十年面临家庭洗衣设备普及与洗衣服务业的激烈竞争,2008至去(2013)年营收都呈现衰退,预期亦将从2013年的40亿美元跌至2017年的37亿9,000万美元。自助洗衣业为能够重振商机,也开始变革并提供各项新服务如:24小时无休、专人全时看管、传统的投币洗衣机变成可使用现金卡与智慧卡等。
 
二、洗衣及干洗服务:美国约有二万家业者,约占整个服务市场70%,约110亿美元。大型干洗业者使用中央洗衣作业来服务多家零售店面以达到经济规模;小型业者则以自营店面和所提供的服务来赚取利润,有些业者自行设置机器提供干洗服务,有些则是再转交给专业的干洗店。

 



 
三、专业洗衣厂:工业洗衣服务以提供作业场所工作服装的洗涤为主,提供制衣厂成衣的洗濯及熨烫。
 
该服务市场的营业规模高达105亿美元,主要服务对象为旅馆饭店52.8%、医疗产业45.9%及联邦政府机构1.3%。主要服务对象有ARAMARK、Cintas、G&K Services、UniFirst、Sodexho、Crothall。
 
全国职业人才认证管理中心织物保养培训基地
 
Global (China) Washing and Dyed Industry Association Mr. Guo Yongyi introduced "American dyeing industry trends"
 
As the US economy continues to improve, the housing market gradually stabilized, laundry equipment sales also will pick up, market surveyor estimates, the US laundry industry sales in 2014 up to 13.1 billion US dollars.
 
Self-service laundry is part of the lives of most Americans, the United States has more than 50 years of self-service laundry history, the world's largest self-service laundry market is also in the United States. The laundry industry mainly includes: laundry equipment, laundry products and services. As the US economy continues to improve, the housing market is stabilizing and laundry equipment sales are picking up this year, with marketers forecasting sales of $ 13.1 billion this year.
 
A wide range of different functions of laundry equipment
 
American household washing machine is divided into two types: drum and stirring, each with different functions and advantages and disadvantages. As a result of many brands so the competition is also very intense. The largest US power plant Whirlpool in November 2011 to the US federal government sued South Korea's Samsung and LG dumping household washing machines, resulting in South Korea was once the US sales of washing machines up to 82% of tariffs, resulting in sales plunged in the United States 38 / RTI & gt; However, since the signing of the free trade agreement between the United States and South Korea, the Korean import tariffs on washing machines decreased, automatic washing machines down to 0.9%, 0.7% for large washing machines and components dropped to 1.8%.
 
At present, the main sales channels of household laundry equipment are department stores, warehouse supermarkets, home building materials repair centers, home appliances and CE stores, in addition to online store sales. Industrial laundry equipment is mainly used in textile dyeing and finishing of fabrics or garments heavy machinery. Such as Jensen, IPSOA, DC, Cissell, IPSO, B & C Technologies, UniMac, Braun.
 
American launderette everywhere, so commercial laundry equipment is quite popular and a wide range, mostly from wholesalers to sell and provide installation and maintenance of the full range of services, the main types are:
 
Laundromats: Whirlpool, Huebsch, Maytag, Speed ​​Queen, Kenmore and Dexter are the washing machines used in the city's laundromat.
 
Second, on-premise laundry equipment (On-premise Laundries, OPL): hotels, hospitals, schools and other public places set up large-capacity washing equipment, such as laundry dehydrator (Washer Extractors), drum dryer (Drying Tumblers) Large mechanical ironing platform (Flatwork Ironers). Its brands are UniMac, Huebsch, Speed ​​Queen, Wascomat and Milnor.
 
Third, the compound family housing Laundry equipment: set in the apartment building, military camps and camping areas, for public use.
 
Fourth, dry and wet washing equipment: general laundry for valet laundry and the need to descaling to remove stains, dip the special treatment of clothing equipment. Major brands are RealStar, Forenta, Sate, Sankosha, Columbia, Firbimatic, Eco Dry of America, Easy Clean, Union and Aero-Tech.
 
Laundry products brand loyalty to buy high
 
In recent years, the US laundry products market is slightly tired, from 2008 to 2012 are 0.6% annual average rate of decline in 2012 revenue scale of 9.3 billion US dollars. The recession is due to the economic recovery is not fully, the textile technology makes the fabric sewage function increases, reduce the demand for washing clothes, so the product is expected to 2017 will not be significant growth.
 
As the popularity of washing machines and laundry detergent manufacturers to vigorously promote the current most popular laundry detergent for consumers, accounting for 55% of market sales, about 5.1 billion US dollars. The major players in the laundry industry are Procter & Gamble, which owns Tide, Gain, Ariel, Bold and Downy, with a market share of 59.2%.
 
The main sales channels for the laundry products accounted for 56.3% of the supermarkets, 37.4% of the independent stores, 3.0% of convenience stores, 2.2% of warehouse supermarkets and wholesalers, and 1.0% of other routes.
 
According to the Catalina study, consumers spend an average of $ 43.76 on laundry detergent, compared to an average of $ 24.45 for the top five brands. In addition, consumers buy the same brand loyalty up to 63%, will turn the brand is only 23%.
 
Laundry service customer positioning patterns varied
 
Laundry industry in the United States has a history of development, the various stages of service also evolved with the times and consumer demand is different, the current main types of laundry service is divided into three categories:
 
First, the laundromat: the United States has about thirty thousand self-service laundries, the largest industry Coinmach accounted for 13.1% of the market; Mac-Gray 7.3%. In the past decade, the laundromat has faced fierce competition from home laundry and laundry services, with revenue declining in 2008 to 2013 and falling to $ 3.7 billion in 2017 from $ 4 billion in 2013 $ 90 million. The self-service laundry industry has been able to revive business opportunities, and has begun to change and provide new services such as: 24 hours a day, hand full time custody, the traditional coin-operated washing machine into a cash card and smart cards.
 
Second, laundry and dry cleaning services: the United States has about 20,000 operators, accounting for about 70% of the entire service market, about 11 billion US dollars. Large dry-cleaners use central laundry operations to serve a number of retail outlets to achieve economies of scale. Small-scale operators earn profits from self-operated stores and services provided. Some operators set up their own machines to provide dry cleaning services. Professional dry cleaners.
 
Third, the professional laundry: Industrial laundry services to provide workplace work clothes washing mainly to provide garment factory clothing washing and ironing.
 
The service market of the business scale of up to $ 10.5 billion, the main target for hotel hotels 52.8%, 45.9% of the medical industry and the federal government agencies 1.3%. Major clients are ARAMARK, Cintas, G & K Services, UniFirst, Sodexho, Crothall.
 
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