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善用干洗 Make good use of dry cleaning! 2018-11-22




 
善用四氯乙稀干洗机和溶剂完全可以达到环保要求,即保留了四氯乙稀作为高效干洗剂的优点,又避免其不良影响,四氯乙稀在今后十几年仍至几十年将会为人们继续使用,如何提高四氯乙稀干洗机的环保适应性,将是当下人们所关注的话题。
 
干洗机:
 
是使用化学溶剂与机械能的共同作用来洗涤衣物,并具有脱剂、烘干、溶剂过滤净化,回收等功能的机械。
 
干洗机的分类:
 
根据所使用的化学溶剂不同,可分为如下种类:
 
1、四氯乙稀干洗机,是指使用四氯乙稀作洗涤溶剂的干洗机,四氯乙稀简称Per溶剂。
2、氟素干洗机,是指使用F113、F141B等作干洗溶剂的干洗机。
3、石油干洗机,是指使用石油溶剂(即烃类溶剂)作洗涤溶剂的干洗机如DF2000、DF4000一类。
4、溴化碳干洗机:指采用HYD溶剂的干洗机,HYD溶剂是HYDROCARBON的简称。
5、液态二氧化碳干洗机:指使用液态CO2作洗溶剂的干洗机。
6、KP-A干洗机:是指最近推出的使用一种KP-A复合型溶剂的干洗机。
 
 
机器结构可分为三类:
 
一、Per类干洗机,使用四氯乙稀溶剂,氟素溶剂和KP-A复合溶剂,这类干洗机结构原理和系统基本一样,但其中氟素干洗机是采用特殊的热风蒸馏箱。
 
二、HYD类干洗机,使用石油溶剂和溴化碳溶剂,由于这两种溶剂都存在易燃、易爆的安全问题,因此,这类干洗机都具有特殊的结构要求。
(1)溶剂降温装置,保证溶剂在低于闪点的低温状态下进行洗涤。
(2)贫氧装置,保证在整个干洗过程中,干洗机内氧气的含量不超过8%,防止溶剂与氧化接触引起爆炸,通常是采用自动检测干洗机各溶腔中氧的含量,并自动充入氮气的方法。
(3)防静电装置,在干洗过程中自动检测溶剂的电阻值,以测定溶剂是否产生静,通常是利用溶剂电阻值的变化自动加注碱液以消除溶剂产生的静电。 (4)烘干气流调节装置,通常是采用检测烘干风道进出口的温度来自动调节冷风和热风的流量,以控制烘干气流的溶剂气体浓度和温度,这类干洗机一般都采用特殊的真空蒸馏装置。
 
三、CO2类干洗机,使用液态二氧化碳溶剂作洗涤溶剂,这是近年来才开发的高压干洗机,由于工作在高压状态致使其结构特殊,价格昂贵,目前还没有普遍使用。
 
常用干洗机溶剂的特性:
 
1、四氯乙稀:Perchloroethylene
 
分子式:C2CL4
 
分子量:165.83
 
比重:(20℃)1.6226
 
沸点:(0.1Mpa时)121.℃
 
气相密度:5.8
 
气体压力:(15.5℃时)12mmHg柱
 
冰点:-22.3℃
 
热传导率:液态126.6nw/cm.k
 
气态8.73nw/cm.k
 
蒸发潜热:121.℃KJ/MOL
 
介电常数:2.2
 
电导率:55.8
 
溶解度:(25℃MG)
 
四氯乙稀在100G水是为15。

 
 
2、氟素溶剂F113
 
分子式:C2CL3F3
 
比重:1.58
 
沸点:47.5℃
 
溴氧消耗潜能ODP=0.8
 
 
3、溴化碳溶剂HYDROCARBON
 
分子式:C11H24
 
比重:0.7
 
沸点:175℃
 
燃点:55℃~65℃
 
热容量:2.1KJ
 
 
4、石油溶剂(烃类溶剂)
 
比重:0.78
 
沸点:140~200℃
 
燃点:37℃
 
几种常用溶剂的性能比较:
 
名称       比重      沸点     ODP值     KB值     允许排放     易燃性     易爆性
 
Per溶剂    1.62      121℃    0 90      25PPM     禁止排放      易燃      易爆
石油溶剂   0.78      141℃    0 30      350PPM    禁止排放      易燃      易爆
HYD溶剂    0.7       175℃    0.05 65   350PPM    禁止排放      易燃      易爆
F113溶剂   1.58      47.5℃   0.8 30    300PPM    禁止排放      易燃      易爆
F1418      1.48      32℃     0.1 59    300PPM    禁止排放      易燃      易爆
 
四氯乙稀及其对环境和人体的影响:
 
 
1、四氯乙稀是一种无色透明的液体,在所有氢化烷类和氢化乙稀类溶剂中是最稳定的一种仅需添加少量稳定剂。是一种强有效的溶剂,主要用于干洗、金属脱脂和纺织品加工方面。
 
四氯乙稀最早生产于1821年由Faraday首先采用热分解六氯乙烷制备而得,在第一次世界大战期间,由英国、德国生产,美国在1925年开始采用四氯乙稀作干洗剂,二次世界大战后,开始在欧洲广泛采用。
 
四氯乙稀是有机化合物的广谱溶剂,它溶解硫、碘、氧化汞,也能溶解相当当量的氯化铝。它能溶解脂肪、焦油、橡胶和树脂,它可以和氯化有机溶剂及其他大部份普通溶剂相互溶解,并生成大约60种二元共沸物。
 
四氯乙稀在150℃以下不会发生分解,如果没有催化作用,在空气、水等条件下四氯乙稀在500℃以下范围内是稳定的,它不受氧影响,在光和空气条件下长期储存会发生缓慢分解。这是自动氧化的结果,但胺类和酚类能阻止其自然氧化,加入稳定剂后可全使其化学性能稳定。
四氯乙稀在镍的催化条件下,220℃会完全分解成氯化氢及碳,光氯化四氯乙稀生成六氯乙烷,在石油醚溶液中四氯乙稀与丁基锂会发生爆炸,MP时,四氯乙稀同金属钾也会发生爆炸。
 
2、四氯乙稀作为干洗溶剂时对环境和人体的影响主要有如下几个方面:
 
(1)溶剂泄漏污染:
 
由于四氯乙稀溶剂的泄漏,挥发而污染干洗工场环境的空气,使其含氯气体的含量增加,当浓度大于100PPM时,人会闻到不适的气味,当大于200PP时会引起眼睛的轻刺激和轻微头痛;当大于400PPM时,会感到鼻腔刺激,身体感到不适,当浓度大于600PPM时人们会感到非常浓的不适气味并对眼,鼻有较强的刺激;如果长期在这种环境下,会发生眩晕和麻木的感觉;当浓度大于1000PPM时将会感谢强烈的刺激气味,眼睛和呼吸道受到强烈刺激,在半小时内含异常眩晕,可能会失去知觉;如果人在浓度大于1500PPM的环境中少则几分钟,多则半小时会失去知觉,仍至死亡。
 
(2)机器泄漏污染:
 
干洗机在干洗过程中的泄漏,包括溶剂管道的泄漏或烘干时风道的漏气,都会污染周围的空气,使含氯气体的浓度增加,导致上述结果。
 
(3)干洗废渣污染:
 
干洗机在干洗过程中产生的含四氯乙稀的废物,如蒸馏残渣,水分离器的分离水,绒毛捕集器的绒毛等,这些废物排离干洗机后,会对环境和人体造成污染。
 
(4)衣物残留污染:
 
干洗过程中衣物上的四氯乙稀没有完全干燥回收,带离干洗机,引起污染。
 
(5)接触污染:
 
在干洗过程中人体,某些部位不小心接触到四氯乙稀,对皮肤产生刺激,使之干燥,粗糙脱皮等,如浅入眼睛可使眼睛红肿,应立即清水冲洗,如果无意中意外地吞食少量四氯乙稀则会对人体产生较大危害,如量较大则应立即洗胃以免产生严重的伤害。
 
四氯乙稀干洗机产生环境污染的原因
 
直至今天,经过近百年的历史验证,四氯乙稀仍然是最好的干洗溶剂,但它对环境和人体同样存在污染和危害,由于干洗机本身产生的污染,主要有如下三个方面:
 
 
1、干洗机在干洗过程中的泄漏引起污染。
 
a 溶剂泄漏:包括:油缸、外笼、金属过滤器,水分离器,尼龙过滤器,蒸馏冷凝器等各干洗机容腔的泄漏;干洗剂输送管道、阀门的泄漏,溶剂泵的泄漏,洗笼主轴轴封的泄汛等。
 
b 气体泄漏:干洗机在烘干衣物时,风道各密封的泄漏,平衡管路的泄漏,各腔体密封,风道口盖的泄漏等引起烘干过程含氯气体外溢污染环境。
 
c 残存泄漏:在干洗过程中,残留在干洗机各溶腔内、例洗衣笼、风道、过滤器、蒸留器、水分器内的绒毛、残渣等带有四氯乙稀没能回收,可能带出机外,或开启机门,各口盖形成气体溢出产生污染。
 
2、残存气体污染:干洗机在烘干衣物时在笼内和风道中的气流含有大量四氯乙稀,在干衣过程中没能完全把气流中的四氯乙稀回收,在干衣结束后,机内气体含有四氯乙稀,当开门取衣时会溢出机外产生污染。
 
3、残渣污染:在干洗过程和溶剂再生过程,溶剂过滤过程中,衣物带来的绒毛,杂质等会形成干洗残渣,这些残渣在排出机外时造成污染,如蒸馏再生溶剂时,产生蒸馏残渣,清理过滤器时,过滤内部粘附绒毛等残渣,在绒毛过滤器,纽扣捕集器中滤留的绒毛,干燥冷凝器干燥加热器翅片上的绒毛等等。
 
四氯乙稀干洗机适应环保要求的措施:
 
由于四氯乙稀用于干洗是最好的,但又同存在着对环境的污染,导至对人体的危害,因此世界各国都在纷纷寻找新的替代溶剂,同时对现有四氯乙稀干洗进行改进,使其符合环保要求,经过十多年的努力,人们对四氯乙稀的危害认识更全面更深刻,而寻找替代四氯乙稀的溶剂却总不能如愿如偿。
实践证明,如果人类长期置身于一种高浓度的含四氯乙稀气体的环境中,肯定会对人体造成程度不一样的某些伤害,但实践同样证明,四氯乙稀并不是致癌物,目前仍未被国际癌症研究署,美国职业安全及健康委员会OSHA及美国国家毒物学规化署等权威机构确认为致癌物,美国各州无法没有法律规定不准使用四氯乙稀干洗机,只是对四氯乙稀的气态排放浓度,工作场地及周围地壤中四氯乙稀的排放量等作了规定。
 
(1)美国OSHA,在1989年规定,连续8小时四氯乙稀的极限浓度从100PPM为25PPM。
 
(2)美国政府工业卫生委员会90年建议:工作地点连续8小时四氯乙稀的最大浓度为25PPM。15分钟短时间最大浓度为100PPM。
 
(3)加拿大政府规定:干洗工厂的四氯乙稀环境极限浓度为25PPM。
 
(4)德国政府在VB966法规中规定德国工人的安全和健康标准,其中四氯乙稀的职业环境极限浓度 为50PPM。
 
(5)香港特别行政区规定干洗机干洗后笼内残存浓度小于300PPM。
 
为了适应上述环保要求,四氯乙稀干洗机,应采取如下措施:
 
1、提高干洗机的密封性能,包括部件密封管置密封,泵密封、干洗笼轴密封,风道密封各腔体口盖密封等,除结构上采用先进的气密结构之外,对于密封件材料的选用应十分注意。
 
目前,常用的密封材料是采用氟橡胶或改性丁睛橡胶,平面密封则多用复合胶木密封件即用氟胶片加软木组成平面密封垫层,由于氟橡胶的硬度和弹性不可兼得,最近国外大量采用改性丁睛橡胶制作各种密封材料,这种材料既耐四氯乙稀,又有弹性和很低的硬度,在机械轴封中则大量采用组合密封方式,即气封加轴封的双密结构,在溶剂泵等专用轴封中则巧妙地用陶瓷和O型圈组成动态密封,这些密封材料的改进提高了干洗机的密封性能。极大地降低了污染。
 
2、提高干洗机的溶剂回收能力
 
干洗机干洗溶剂的回收原理是基于空气中四氯乙稀的含量与空气的温度有关,实践证明在不同的温度下饱和空气中四氯乙稀的浓度是不同的,德国BOWE公司经过长期的试验总结出如下关系曲线,由此我们可以得出如下:
规律:
 
(1)干衣气流温度越高,热气流使衣物上的四氯乙稀蒸发,气流中四氯乙稀饱和蒸气的浓度越高,有利于从衣物中带走四氯乙稀,有利于烘干衣物。
 
(2)干洗机干燥冷凝系统,冷介质的温度越低,使干衣气流迅速冷却有利于冷凝回收四氯乙稀。
 
(3)干衣气流温度不能无限提高,为了保护衣物不变形,纤维不受影响,通常干衣温度在40~60℃为好。
 
(4)冷却介质温度不可能无限降低,考虑成本和功耗及其他条件限制一般最低选择-20℃左右,要避免冷介质温度过高,如温差小于20℃则回收效果不好
 
(5)干洗机的溶剂回收能力除了与烘干温度,冷介质温度有关外,还与机器结构,风道设计,抽排风量等诸多因素有关。
 
根据上述原理,为了提高回收能力一般采取如下方法:
 
a. 采用新型直线式大气流风道设计
 
b. 采用电致冷回收系统,降低冷质温度。
 
c. 采用机外二次回收技术,在干衣后期通过笼外循环,活性碳吸附进行二次回收,以降低笼内残存浓度。
 
d. 采用全腔体真空内吸防漏技术,使干洗所有溶腔的气体均不能外溢,任何容腔口盖的开启只能吸入外界空气促进二次回收,而绝无外泄气流。
 
3、提高干洗机的过滤能力,通常采用双过滤系统,即生态过滤器加活性碳过滤器,这样提高溶剂的清洁度从而提高洗净度。
 
4、采取复合风道设计,进行纽扣捕集器,绒毛捕集器一体化设计,保证上述两捕集器通常处于燥状态,防止清洗污染。
 
5、采取蒸馏箱自动清洗系统,蒸馏残渣自动清洗,集中处理,有效防止清理过程中的残渍污染。
 
6、采用复合水分离处理系统,避免水分离器排放的水对土壤污染。
 
7、采用整体油盘装置和自动回填泵系统避免溶剂流失。
 
8、采用内置式气室平衡系统。锁闭干洗机循环气流防止外泄。
 
通过采取科学有效的管理与应用四氯乙烯仍然可以在干洗中应用,让我们洗衣人共同努力,保卫我们的家园、为子孙后代留住青山绿水、关爱——地球!
 
  

全国职业人才认证管理中心织物保养培训基地
 

Make good use of dry cleaning!
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning machines and make good use of the solvent can meet environmental requirements, that retains the advantages of efficient as tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaners, but also to avoid its adverse effects, tetrachloro-ethylene in the next ten years to several decades still people will continue to use, how to improve the tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning machines environmental adaptability will be the moment people are concerned about the topic.
 
Dry-cleaning machines:
 
The use of chemical solvents and joint action of mechanical energy to wash clothes, and having degreasing agent, drying, solvent filtration purification, recycling and other mechanical functions.
 
Cleaning machines Category:
 
Depending on the chemical solvent used, it can be divided into the following types:
 
1, tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning machines, is the use of tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning machines for washing solvent, tetrachloro-ethylene referred Per solvent.
2, fluorine dry cleaning machines, is the use of F113, F141B and other dry-cleaning solvent for dry cleaning machines.
3, petroleum dry cleaning machines, is the use of petroleum solvents (ie hydrocarbon solvent) as a cleaning solvent dry cleaning machines such as DF2000, DF4000 category.
4, brominated carbon dry cleaning machine: refers to the use of the solvent dry cleaning machines HYD, HYD solvent is HYDROCARBON short.
5, the liquid carbon dioxide dry cleaning machine: refers to the use of liquid CO2 as a cleaning solvent dry cleaning machines.
6, KP-A dry cleaning machine: refers to the use of a recently launched KP-A complex solvent dry cleaning machines.
 
Machine structure can be divided into three categories:
 
A, Per class of dry cleaning machines, using ethylene tetrachloride solvent, fluorocarbon solvent and KP-A co-solvent, such dry-cleaning machine structure is basically the same principle and system, but fluorine dry cleaning machine is the use of a special hot air distillation tank.
 
Two, HYD class cleaning machines, petroleum solvents and brominated carbon solvents, since these two solvents are flammable, explosive safety, therefore, this type of dry-cleaning machines have special structural requirements.
(1) solvent cooling device, ensure solvent at a temperature below the flash point of the low temperature washing.
(2) oxygen-depleted device to ensure that the entire process of dry-cleaning, dry-cleaning machine oxygen content of not more than 8%, prevent solvent contact with oxidizing cause an explosion, usually by dry cleaning machine to automatically detect the content of each of dissolved oxygen in the chamber, and automatically method purged with nitrogen.
(3) anti-static devices, in the dry cleaning process automatically detects the resistance value of the solvent, to determine whether the solvent to produce static, usually by solvent resistance value changes automatically raise lye to eliminate static electricity generated by the solvent. (4) drying air flow adjusting means, usually by detecting the temperature of the drying air inlet and outlet to automatically adjust the flow of cold air and hot air to control the drying air flow and temperature of the solvent gas concentration, such dry cleaning machines are generally used special vacuum distillation unit.
 
Three, CO2 class dry-cleaning machines using liquid carbon dioxide as the solvent washing solvent, it is only in recent years the development of high-pressure cleaning machines, as a result of the high pressure resulting in its special structure, the price is expensive, there is no widespread use.
 
Dry-cleaning solvent commonly used features:
 
1, tetrachloro-ethylene: Perchloroethylene
Molecular formula: C2CL4
Molecular Weight: 165.83
Specific gravity: (20 ℃) ​​1.6226
Boiling point: (0.1Mpa when) 121. ℃
Gas density: 5.8
Gas pressure: (15.5 ℃ when) 12mmHg column
Freezing point: -22.3 ℃
Thermal conductivity: Liquid 126.6nw / cm.k
Gaseous 8.73nw / cm.k
Latent heat of vaporization: 121. ℃ KJ / MOL
Dielectric constant: 2.2
Conductivity: 55.8
Solubility: (25 ℃ MG)
Tetrachloro-ethylene in water for 15 100G.
Water 120G tetrachloro-ethylene for 8
 
2, fluorocarbon solvent F113
Molecular formula: C2CL3F3
Weight: 1.58
Boiling point: 47.5 ℃
Bromo-depleting potential ODP = 0.8
 
3, brominated carbon solvent HYDROCARBON
Molecular formula: C11H24
Specific Gravity: 0.7
Boiling point: 175 ℃
Flash point: 55 ℃ ~ 65 ℃
Heat capacity: 2.1KJ
 
4, a petroleum solvent (hydrocarbon solvent)
Weight: 0.78
Boiling point: 140 ~ 200 ℃
Flash point: 37 ℃
 
Performance comparison of several commonly used solvents:
 
Name gravity boiling point ODP value KB allowable emission values ​​flammable explosive
 
Per solvent 1.62 121 ℃ 0 90 25PPM prohibit the discharge of flammable and explosive
Petroleum solvents 0.78 141 ℃ 0 30 350PPM prohibit the discharge of flammable and explosive
HYD solvent 0.7 175 ℃ 0.05 65 350PPM prohibit the discharge of flammable and explosive
F113 solvent 1.58 47.5 ℃ 0.8 30 300PPM prohibit the discharge of flammable and explosive
F1418 1.48 32 ℃ 0.1 59 300PPM prohibit the discharge of flammable and explosive
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene and its impact on the environment and human health:
 
1, tetrachloro-ethylene is a colorless transparent liquid alkanes in all hydrogenated and hydrogenated ethylene-based solvent is the most stable one simply add a small amount of stabilizer. Is a potent solvent, is mainly used for dry-cleaning, degreasing metal and textile processing.
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene first produced in 1821 by the Faraday first prepared by thermal decomposition of hexachloroethane derived, during World War I, the British, German production, the United States in 1925 began using ethylene tetrachloride for PCE after World War II began in Europe, it is widely used.
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene is a broad spectrum of organic solvent, which dissolves sulfur, iodine, mercuric oxide, can be dissolved quite equivalents of aluminum chloride. It can dissolve fat, tar, rubber and resin, it can and chlorinated organic solvents and most other common solvents to dissolve each other, and generates about 60 kinds of binary azeotropes.
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene decomposition does not occur below 150 ℃, if there is no catalyst, in air, water and other conditions tetrachloro-ethylene in the range below 500 ℃ is stable, it is not the influence of oxygen, light and air conditions in long-term storage of slow decomposition occurs. This is a result of auto-oxidation, but amines and phenols can prevent natural oxidation, stabilizers can be added after the chemical properties of stabilized whole.
Tetrachloro-ethylene under catalytic conditions nickel, 220 ℃ completely decomposed into carbon and hydrogen chloride, tetrachloro-ethylene dichloride light generated hexachloroethane, tetrachloro-ethylene with butyl lithium explosion occurs in petroleum ether solution , MP, the ethylene tetrachloride with metallic potassium will explode.
 
2, the impact on the environment and human health as a dry-cleaning solvent tetrachloro-ethylene has the following main aspects:
 
(1) Solvent Spill:
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene due to leakage of solvent, volatile and dry workshop environment, air pollution, it increases the content of chlorine-containing gas, when the concentration is greater than 100PPM, people will smell the odor of discomfort, when more than 200PP May cause eye light irritation and slight headache; when more than 400PPM, will feel nasal irritation, physical discomfort, when the concentration is greater than 600PPM people will feel very strong odor discomfort and eye, nose and there is a strong stimulus; if long-term in this environment , dizziness and numbness occur; when the concentration is greater than 1000PPM would like to thank the strong pungent odor, strongly eyes and respiratory tract irritation, dizziness, abnormal contents in half an hour, you may lose consciousness; if the concentration is greater than in an environment 1500PPM in at least a few minutes to more than half an hour, loss of consciousness, still death.
 
(2) Machine Spill:
 
Dry cleaning machines in the dry cleaning process leaks, including leaks or drying solvent pipeline leak when will pollute the surrounding air duct, so that the concentration of chlorine-containing gas is increased, leading to the above results.
 
(3) dry-cleaning waste pollution:
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene-containing wastes generated in the dry-cleaning machines dry cleaning process, such as distillation residue, water separator separating water, lint trap hair, etc. These waste after discharge from dry cleaning machines, pollute the environment and human .
 
(4) clothes residual contamination:
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning process is not completely dry clothing recycling, away from dry cleaning machines, causing pollution.
 
(5) exposure to pollution:
 
In the dry cleaning process the human body, some parts do not accidentally come into contact with tetrachloro-ethylene, skin irritation, allowed to dry, rough peeling, such as light into the eyes can make eye irritation, immediately rinse with water, if inadvertently accidentally swallowed a small amount of tetrachloro-ethylene will produce greater harm to the human body, such as the large amount of gastric lavage should immediately to avoid serious injury.
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning machines produce environmental pollution reasons
 
Even today, after nearly a century of history verification, tetrachloro-ethylene dry-cleaning solvent is still the best, but it also exists in the environment and human pollution and hazards due to contamination of the dry cleaning machine itself, mainly the following three aspects:
 
1, dry cleaning machines in the dry cleaning process leakage caused pollution.
 
a solvent leak: include: fuel tank leakage, the outer cage, metal filter, water separator, nylon filters, distillation condenser, and other cleaning machines containing chamber; PCE pipeline leak, leaking valves, solvent pump, wash cage spindle shaft seal leakage flood like.
b gas leak: dry-cleaning machine when drying clothes, each sealing duct leaks, leaking pipeline balance, each cavity sealed, leak wind crossing the cover caused the drying process of chlorine gas spill pollute the environment.
c residual leakage: In the dry cleaning process, and the residue was dissolved cavity in each dry cleaning machine, for example a laundry basket, duct, filter, distilled, a moisture within the hair, no residues, etc. with tetrachloro-ethylene can be recycled, may out outside the machine, or open the door, each flap to form a gas spill pollution.
 
2, residual gas pollution: When drying clothes dry-cleaning machines in the cage airflow duct containing a large amount tetrachloro-ethylene, did not completely tetrachloro-ethylene in the gas stream recovered in the drying process, after drying , tetrachloro-ethylene-containing gas inside the machine when the door take clothes out of the machine will spill pollution.
 
3, the residue pollution: in the dry cleaning process and solvent regeneration process, solvent filtration process, bring the laundry fluff and impurities will form a dry residue, these residues when outside pollution, such as distillation solvent regeneration, resulting in the distillation residue from the plane when cleaning the filter, filter residue and other internal adhesion fluff, fluff fluff in the filter, button trap filter left, the hair was dried fins on the condenser drying heater and so on.
 
Tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning machine to adapt to the requirements of environmental protection measures:
 
Since tetrachloro-ethylene dry-cleaning for the best, but with the existence of pollution of the environment, leading to harm to human body, and therefore all countries in the world are looking for new alternatives in the solvent, while the existing tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning is improved to comply with environmental requirements, after ten years of effort, people tetrachloro-ethylene in a more comprehensive and profound understanding of the harm, and the search for alternative solvent tetrachloro-ethylene can not always do so as compensation.
Practice has proved that if a long-term human exposure to high concentrations of tetrachloro-ethylene-containing gases in the environment, the body will certainly cause some degree of injury is not the same, but the practice also proved tetrachloro-ethylene is not a carcinogen, It has not yet been confirmed international agency for Research on cancer, the US occupational safety and health Committee and the US national Toxicology OSHA regulation of the agency and other authorities as carcinogens, states can not be allowed to use no law tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning machines, just It makes provision for gaseous emission concentrations of ethylene tetrachloride emissions and other places around the work site and tetrachloro-ethylene in the soil.
 
(1) United States OSHA, in 1989, stipulates that the concentration limit of 8 hours tetrachloro-ethylene is from 100PPM 25PPM.
(2) United States 90 years of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Committee recommends: maximum workplace concentrations 8 hours tetrachloro-ethylene is 25PPM. 15 minutes is the maximum concentration short 100PPM.
(3) Government of Canada states: tetrachloro-ethylene dry-cleaning plant environmental concentration limit is 25PPM.
(4) The German government safety regulations and health standards of German workers in VB966 regulations, which limit occupational environment of tetrachloro-ethylene concentration 50PPM.
(5) the provisions of the Hong Kong SAR after the dry cleaning machine dry cleaning cages residual concentration of less than 300PPM.
 
In order to meet the above requirements of environmental protection, tetrachloro-ethylene dry cleaning machines, should take the following measures:
 
1, to improve the sealing performance of dry-cleaning machines, including parts outside the gland seal set, pump seals, shaft seals dry cleaning cages, each duct sealing cap sealing the cavity, in addition to the structure using advanced airtight structure, the sealing member We should pay great attention to the selection of materials.
 
At present, the commonly used sealing materials are fluorine rubber or modified NBR, flat seal is more complex with bakelite seal is applied with a fluorine film composition cork flat seal cushion, since fluorine rubber hardness and elasticity can not have both recently abroad extensive use of modified NBR produce a variety of sealing materials, this material resistant to both tetrachloro-ethylene, and elasticity and low hardness, mechanical shaft seal in the sealing method using a combination of a lot of that air sealing shaft seal the double-density structure in a solvent pump, and other special seal in the ceramic and skillfully composed dynamic O-ring seal to improve the sealing of these materials improves the sealing performance of dry-cleaning machines. Greatly reducing pollution.
 
2, to improve the ability to dry-cleaning solvent recovery machine
 
Dry cleaning machine dry-cleaning solvent recovery principle is based tetrachloro-ethylene content in the air and the air temperature, the air saturated proved tetrachloro ethylene concentration at different temperatures are different, the German company through a long trial BOWE summed up as follows curve, so we can draw the following:
law:
(1) the higher the temperature of the air dryer, hot air makes tetrachloro-ethylene clothing evaporation, the higher the saturated vapor stream of tetrachloro-ethylene concentration in favor of tetrachloro-ethylene away from the clothes, help bake dry clothes.
(2) dry-cleaning dryer condensing system, the lower the temperature of the cooling medium, so that drying gas stream is rapidly cooled condensate recovery in favor of tetrachloro-ethylene.
(3) temperature of the air dryer can not be infinitely increased deformation for protective clothing, the fiber is not affected, drying temperature is generally in the 40 ~ 60 ℃ as well.
(4) the temperature of the cooling medium can not be infinitely reduced, considering the cost and power consumption, and other conditions are generally the lowest choice about -20 ℃, to avoid the cold medium temperature is too high, such as the temperature is less than 20 ℃ is recycled ineffective
Solvent recovery capacity (5) In addition to dry cleaning machine and drying temperature, cold medium temperature related, but also the structure of the machine, duct design, the amount of exhaust smoke, and many other factors.
According to this principle, in order to improve the ability to collect general take the following approach:
a. using the new linear air flow duct design.
b. by electric refrigeration recovery system that reduces cryogenic temperatures.
c. secondary recovery technique using the machine, in the late drying cycle through the cage, activated carbon adsorption secondary recovery, in order to reduce the concentration of residual cage.
d. the use of vacuum suction chamber full leak technology, all dry gas cavern can not spill any receptacle chamber flap open only outside air sucked promote secondary recovery, and no leakage airflow.
 
3, to improve the ability to filter cleaning machines, usually double-filtration system that filters plus ecological activated carbon filters, thereby improving the cleanliness of the solvent and thus improve the wash.
4, taking the composite duct design, conduct button trap, lint trap integrated design to ensure that the two trap normally in dry state, to prevent contamination of the cleaning.
5, take a distillation tank automatic cleaning system, automatic cleaning distillation residue, centralized processing, effectively prevent the cleaning process of the stains pollution.
6, composite water separation system to avoid water separator water discharged to soil contamination.
7, using a whole disk device and automatic oil pump system backfilling avoid solvent loss.
8, with built-in air chamber balancing system. Locking the circulating air to prevent leakage of dry cleaning machines.
 
By taking a scientific and effective management and application of tetrachlorethylene can still be used in dry cleaning, laundry let people work together to defend our homeland, for future generations to keep the mountains, love - the Earth!

Global (China) Washing Industry Association reported
 
 





 

 
 

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