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裁剪?打印?“服装” 2018-11-22





 
尽管时装产业具有悠久的历史,尤其女装,消费市场上几乎从来不缺女装,批量的、定制的,各种尺码、各种款式,但这却不能让每一件衣服都能让人穿的贴身、曲美。 
 
 
 
尽管4D打印技术出现的时间还非常短,但这并不影响它的发展。这不,美国麻省科技设计公司“NervousSystem”近日研发出一种利用4D打印技术,制造弹性贴身布料,并打印出了全球第一件“4D裙”。 
 
该裙子就解决了不合身的问题,并且会根据穿戴者的体型情况进行自我改变。更神奇的是还可以自动变化造型,这或许正是女性衣柜里缺的那件衣服。而制作该裙子的布料纤维由2279个三角形和3316个连接点相扣而成,三角形与连接点之间的拉力,可随人体形态变化,即使变胖或变瘦,4D裙也不会不合身。 
 
 
这条裙子在打印机内部所需要的空间比打印普通3D模型要大很多,但是技术人员仍然很完整的打印出了整条裙子。同时,研发人员还用4D打印技术打印出了一系列与这条裙子搭配的珠宝首饰,而这些首饰毫无疑问的也是可以根据人体结构而自动变形的。 
 
“Nervous System”所采用的4D打印材料的原理在麻省理工的基础上又有了新的突破,采用的是“选择性激光烧结技术”,是利用激光束烧结尼龙粉末材料制造原型,激光束不会烧结三角形与连接点之间的粉末,未被烧结的粉末于打印后掉出来,形成环环相扣的纤维,每条裙需48小时制作,造价则达1900英镑(约合人民币18393元),而这价格丝毫不影响女性对它的亲睐。 
 
这条通过4D打印技术打印的裙子,意味着3D打印物体的形状能够自动转变成另一个形状,能够使设计者不需要手工劳动就能转换成它最终的设计形式。为此,“Nervous System”还专门研发了应用程式,让用户先对自己的身体进行3D扫描,再选择布料尺码和形状,即时亲手订造独一无二的4D裙。 
 
 
 
虽然我们很早就可以通过3D打印技术打印各部分零件,然后手动地把这些部件组装在一起,创造一件大件的物体。然而,4D打印与众不同之处是,打印好的物体能够自动组装或是转变成预设的形状。与麻省理工理解不同的是,他们把这一处理过程称为“运动学”,与力学的其中一个分支相同的名字——也被称为运动的几何,它描述的是物体的运动而不是运动的原因。 
 
Rosenkrantz说:“我们认为‘运动学’最大的好处是它可以把任何的三维物体转换为一个灵活的结构然后用来3D打印,公司通过计算机折叠程序可以把结构进一步压缩。” 
 
为了制造出这些裙子,一个3D人体形态扫描仪必不可少,它是数字化服饰模型的基础。通过选择三角形的铰链网状结构,最终成品的硬度和状态可以在这一阶段进行控制,而这些材料下垂的模式会通过屏幕模拟出来。通过计算机模拟软件,这一个数字化模型可以被折叠成一个更小的形状,然后打印出来的是压缩的形态。当人们把裙子从打印机上拿下来后,它就会自动恢复预设的形状。 
 
Rosenkrantz说道:“压缩设计不仅使得产品设计变得更容易,也能使运输更方便。它大大地保证了灵活性衣服的创意得以实现,也可以使今天的小规模打印机进行大件结构物体的生产。”去年,Nervous System应摩托罗拉公司的要求,开始研发这一“运动学”概念来定制4D打印的个性化产品。 
 
Kinematics 能生成由 10 到 1000 个不同的零件组合成的设计,它们能连接构建成动态或机械的结构。比如打印一条裙子时,先是 3D 扫描顾客,接着作出裙子的草图,然后在裙子上镶嵌上花纹。下面就是生成Kinematics 结构,模拟裙子的悬垂特色。最后将裙子压缩,通过计算折叠,裙子比 3D 打印机还要大。还可以一次打印完一件,而不是分成不同的部分先打印再组合成一件产品。
 
 
这些产品的价格根据不同的定制选择会不一样,只要顾客喜欢并定制好了某一个设计,就可以下订单,然后Nervous System就会把它生产出来。第二个免费程序可以让用户在NervousSystem的模板上试验,再把成品在家里打印出来。Rosenkrantz 和 Louis-Rosenberg 把这套理论进一步发展了,加入了把设计折叠成它能够达到的最小的空间结构。 
 
4D 打印的优点,一方面是能将形状挤压成它们最小的布局并 3D 打印出来,这样将打印出来的产品将没有冗余的东西;另外一方面是其打印的物体可以根据不同的需求进行自我变化,这些是 3D 打印无法比拟的。 
 
而4D打印在时装领域的应用将改变当前服装的格局,比如未来的时装店将不再展示时装,也不再需要库存,而是一台人体3D扫描仪加一台专业设计模板的计算机加一面虚拟现实的镜子,用户可以根据自己的风格与偏好从计算机中选择相应的模板,而这一模板可以是任意的风格,也可以是自己的照片,系统将自动设计并生成相应款式的时装。 
 


 
借助于人体3D扫描仪,扫描人体尺寸,并由系统自动生成精准的模型,之后与所设计的时装进行合并,消费者就能看到一种接近于真实的展示。借助于虚拟现实的镜子,消费者可以对其进行任意角度的旋转展示,并根据自己的意见对其进行调整与修改,最终生成消费者心目中的那件衣服。之后可以借助于云服务传输到打印地点进行时装打印,也可以在配置了4D打印机的门店直接进行时装打印。如此说来,4D打印将带时装进入真正的私人订制时代。 
 


Future fashion trend and 4D Printing Technology
 
Although the fashion industry has a long history, especially women, the consumer market is almost never lacked women, batch, customized, assorted sizes, different styles, but do not let every piece of clothing worn next to the skin can make people Qu Mei.
 
Although time 4D printing technology also appears very short, but this does not affect its development. This does not, Massachusetts science and technology design company "NervousSystem" has developed a way to use 4D printing technology, manufacturing elastic fabrics next to the skin, and print out the world's first "4D skirt."
 
The dress does not fit to solve the problem, and will be changed according to the wearer's self-body conditions. Even more amazing it is also automatically change shape, which is perhaps the lack of women in the closet that dress. While making the skirt fabric fibers made from 2279 and 3316 triangles interlocking connection points together, and pull the triangle between the connection points, it may vary with the human form, even if the fat or lose weight, 4D will not dress does not fit .
 
This skirt space inside the printer needed to print than ordinary 3D model to be much larger, but the art is still very complete print out the entire skirt. At the same time, researchers also use 4D printing technology to print a series with this skirt with jewelry, these jewelry also can be no doubt that the structure of the human body automatically deformed.
 
"Nervous System" principle adopted by 4D printing material on the basis of MIT has a new breakthrough, using the "selective laser sintering" is the use of a laser beam sintering prototyping nylon powder material, the laser beam not sintered powder and the connection point between the triangle, not sintered powder fell out after printing, to form a ring of interlocking fibers, each skirt need 48 hours production, the cost is up to 1900 pounds (about 18,393 yuan ), which did not affect the price of its female pro-Lai.
 
This skirt 4D by printing technology printing, 3D printing means that the shape of the object can be automatically converted into another shape, enabling designers do not need manual labor can be converted into its final design form. To this end, "Nervous System" specially developed application that allows users to conduct their own 3D body scanning, select the size and shape of cloth, hand-made instant unique 4D skirt.
 
Although we can print very early through the various parts of 3D printing technology, then manually put these parts are assembled together to create a large object. However, 4D Printing distinguishes that the object can be automatically printed or assembled into a preset shape. MIT and understanding different is that they put this process is called "Kinematics", and mechanics of one of the branches of the same name - also known as geometric movement, it describes the motion of objects rather than Cause movement.
 
Rosenkrantz said: "We think 'kinematic' biggest advantage is that it can be any three-dimensional object into a flexible structure is then used 3D printing, companies can further compress the structure by folding computer program."
 
In order to manufacture these dresses, a 3D body scanner shape is essential, it is the basis for digital clothing model. By selecting a hinge triangle mesh structure, the hardness and the state of the final product can be controlled at this stage, and these materials sagging simulated by the screen mode. Through computer simulation software, a digital model that can be folded into a smaller shape, and then print out the compressed form. When people win the skirt from the printer after, it will automatically restore the default configuration.
 
Rosenkrantz said: "compression design not only makes the design easier, but also make it much easier to transport to ensure creative flexibility clothes can be achieved, can also make today's small-scale production of large parts of the printer object. . "last year, Nervous System request of Motorola, began the development of this" concept kinematics "to customize 4D print personalized products.
 
Kinematics can be generated by the 10 to 1000 parts combined into a different design, they can be constructed dynamically connecting or mechanical structure. For example, when printing a skirt, first 3D scanning customers, then make a sketch of the dress, and then on the skirt inlaid patterns. Here is generating Kinematics structure, simulate the characteristics drape skirt. Finally skirt compressed by calculating folded skirt bigger than the 3D printer. End also can print one, not divided into different sections to print and then combined into one product.
 
The price of the product depending on the customization options will be different, as long as the customer likes and custom design a good one, you can order the following, and then it will Nervous System produced. The second free program allows users to experiment on NervousSystem template, then finished print out at home. Rosenkrantz and Louis-Rosenberg to the further development of this theory, adding that it can be folded into the design to achieve the smallest spatial structure.
 
Advantages 4D printing, one is able to squeeze into their smallest form layout and 3D print it out, so that the product will print out things without redundancy; on the other hand is an object which can be printed according to different needs self-change, these are 3D printing can not match.
 
And 4D print in the fashion field applications will change the current pattern of clothing, such as the future will no longer show the fashion boutiques, and no longer need to stock, but a 3D body scanner plus a professionally designed templates plus side of the computer virtual reality mirror, the user can select the appropriate template according to their own style and preferences from the computer, and this template can be any style, it can be your own photos, the system will automatically generate the corresponding design and fashion style.
 
By means of a 3D body scanner, body size by the system automatically generate accurate models and fashion designed after the merger, consumers will be able to see a kind of close to the real show. With virtual mirror of reality, consumers can be rotating display at any angle, and according to their own opinions on the adjustment and modification, and ultimately generate the minds of consumers that dress. By means of a cloud can then be transferred to the print service locations fashion printing, you can configure the printer for direct store 4D fashion print. That being said, 4D Printing wear fashion into the real Personal Tailor era.

 

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