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茶叶可以穿在身上? 2018-11-22


美国爱荷华州立大学的勒巴伦大楼内有一间纺织服装实验室,研究人员杨阿里(Young-A Lee)带领着她的团队在开展研究新型布料。实验室里的每个塑料容器内都装有含纤维素纤维的凝胶薄膜,这是用醋与糖混合物发酵后生成的红茶菌副产品。这种薄膜型纤维是通过细菌和酵母的共生菌落(SCOBY)发酵制成。




 
在此之前,爱荷华大学官网上就写有一篇文章,专门报道了,获取的共生菌薄膜一经干燥处理,其性质将类似于皮革,可用于制造服装、鞋类或手提包。

在《服装产业的可持续性纤维》一书中,专家写道,这种纤维素纤维属于世界绝无仅有的研究成果。试验已证明该材料可用于化妆品和食品,当然更实用的是用于制造包扎伤口的生物医学织物,至于服装行业,则另当别论,其实用价值还在探索中。不管怎么说,这是一种新型材料,具有独特的功能。这种纤维素纤维属于生物发酵型,来自生物,也可降解回归生物,它的出现,直接对当今浪费量极大的传统纺织服装构成挑战,其优势之一就是绿色环保。

世界上大多数人都认为,时尚只是一种文化、艺术和科技的短暂表达形式。服装公司为满足消费者的欲望和需求,每一年、每一季都会研发新的材料和服装。可这些服装最终会像垃圾一样大量掩埋地下。这种生物性纤维素纤维则可通过再利用或可循环利用减少浪费,这就是所谓的从摇篮到摇篮的设计。即使衣物经回收或转用,最终还是会被丢弃到垃圾箱。这就是为什么她想找到一种真正可持续使用的织物或材料,经生物降解后变为土壤中的养分,而不是进入垃圾填埋场。共生菌落的使用为茶叶副产品开辟了新用途,从而减轻服装产业对不可再生材料的依赖。

新型纤维的研发并非一帆风顺,他们最初的研究缺乏资金。在收到环保局的特许后,研究人员与其小组成员就用获得的纤维素纤维制造可持续使用的衣物和鞋子。迄今为止,他们已多次实验,成功的证明了共生菌落上的纤维素纤维是服装产业中皮革的有效替代品。而最大的问题之一则是空气和人体的水分会将材料软化,从而降低其耐久性。研究人员还发现,在寒冷条件下材料会变得易碎。而大规模生产则会带来另一问题。材料的形成取决于温度和室内环境,在实验室生产该材料大约需要3到4周的时间。他们还在想方设法,缩短生产周期。



客观说,合成材料的制造周期也不长,而这种新型材料需要一定时间发酵繁殖,干燥,还要在特定环境中进行处理。一旦实验的这一项目得以成功,那么这种基于纤维素的再生纤维未来将替代不可再生的纤维材料资源,真正实现从摇篮到摇篮的循环利用,不再依赖于不可再生的资源。


尽管他们面临挑战,但最重要的一步已经迈出。目前纺织服装的主要危害性在于不可循环性。这不仅仅浪费太大,而且制造合成材料和染色面料所使用的化学物质会污染水源和土壤,全世界的服装行业都在寻求改进的方法,消费者也在紧随其后。

目前,全世界的市场和纺织服装产业都把消费者的环保意识放在第一位,服装行业就需要充分了解消费者的期望和述求。虽然不可能在一念之间转变一个行业的生产模式,但这与所有业内息息相关,要从改变他们的价值观开始,以长远的眼光来考虑改善人与地球的关系,而不局限于短期利益。

许多国际消费者都十分支持环境友好型品牌,虽然服装的款式和质感也会影响其购买欲望,但这两因素逐渐沦为第二位。这位教授与其团队在大学生中展开调查,测试其对茶副产品中提取的纤维素纤维制成的背心有何反应。多数学生都以为,这种材料是由皮革、生牛皮、纸张或塑料制成。

在参与调查者中,他们最关心的是材料的颜色和质地,并对其舒适性、耐用性和护理方式提出质疑。毋容置疑,他们对这种可持续性材料都持积极的态度,并认为这是一种新颖的皮革替代品。然而,他们对购买用这种材料制成的产品却十分迟疑。这表明,他们对新材料还需要一个认识过程。

尽管如此,研发人员确信,他们可成功的消除这些顾虑,并为他们提供更安全可行的选择方案,使许多不同层面的人群受益。该团队希望通过此举促使消费者思考,可采用何种方式来促进和支持可持续性服装的实际研发和应用。

 

Le baron of the university of Iowa state building is A textile laboratory, the researchers Yang ali (Young - A Lee) led her team in the research of new material. Every plastic container in the lab is equipped with gel film containing cellulose fibre, it is with vinegar and sugar mixture vendors by-product generated after fermentation. This kind of film type fiber is through the symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY) fermentation. 
 
Prior to this, the university of Iowa officer to write an article on the Internet, special reports, access to symbiotic bacteria film is dry processing, the nature will be similar to the leather, can be used to make clothing, shoes or handbags. 
 
In his book apparel industry sustainability fiber, the experts wrote, the cellulose fiber belongs to the world unique research results. Test has proved that this material can be used in cosmetics and food, of course, more practical biomedical fabric is used in the manufacture of the wound, as for the garment industry, is another matter, actually use value is still in exploration. Anyway, this is a new type of material, has the unique function. The cellulose fibre type belongs to the biological fermentation, from biological, also can return to the biodegradation, it appears, directly to waste a great amount of traditional textile clothing pose a challenge today, is one of the advantages of green environmental protection. 
 
Most people in the world agree that fashion is a kind of brief expression form of culture, art, science and technology. Clothing companies to meet consumer's desire and demand, every year, every quarter will develop new materials and clothing. But these clothes will eventually like garbage buried underground. The biological cellulose fibre can be reused or recycled through reducing waste, this is called from the cradle to cradle design. Even clothing by recycling or conversion, will eventually be thrown into the bin. That is why she wants to find a truly sustainable use of fabric or material, after biodegradation into nutrients in the soil, rather than into the landfill. The use of symbiotic colony opens a new USES for the tea by-products, and garment industry to reduce dependence on non-renewable materials. 
 
New fiber research and development was not all plain sailing, their original research lack of funds. After receiving the charter of the environmental protection bureau, the researchers and their team is made of cellulose fiber for sustainable use of clothing and shoes. So far, they have repeatedly experiment, successful proves symbiotic colony of cellulose fibre is an effective alternative to leather clothing industry. And one of the biggest problems is the air and moisture will material softening of the body, thus reducing its durability. The researchers also found that under the condition of cold material becomes brittle. While mass production leads to another problem. The formation of the material depends on the temperature and indoor environment, production of the material in the laboratory is about 3 to 4 weeks. They also trying to shorten the production cycle. 
 
Objective says, the manufacturing cycle of the composite material is not long, but it takes time to this kind of new material breed fermentation, drying, but also in the specific environment for processing. Once the experiment that this project has been successful, so this kind of regeneration based on cellulose fiber future will replace non-renewable fiber resources, realize from the cradle to cradle of recycling, no longer dependent on non-renewable resources. 
 
Despite the challenges they face, but the most important step has been taken. The main hazards of textile and garment is cyclical. Is too big, it not only waste and make synthetic material and dyed fabrics chemicals used may pollute water and soil, the garment industry all over the world seeking to improve, the method of consumers are followed. 
 
At present, the market and textile and garment industry all over the world's environmental protection consciousness in the first place, the garment industry will need to fully understand the consumer expectations and pray. Although it is impossible in a transition between an industry mode of production, but it is closely related to all of the industry, to change their values from start, to think with a long-term vision to improve the relationship between human and earth, but is not limited to short-term interests. 
 
Many international customers are environment friendly brand support, even though clothing styles and texture will affect their desire to buy, but it is becoming the second two factors. The professor and his team investigation among college students and test its by-product tea extract vest reaction of cellulose fiber. Most students think that this kind of material is made of leather, leather, paper, or plastic. 
 
Among the participants, they care about most is the color of the material and texture, and its comfort, durability and nursing method question. No doubt, they hold positive attitude to the sustainability material, and think that this is a new substitute for leather. However, they buy products made of this material is very hesitant. This suggests that their understanding of new materials will also need a process. 
 
Still, researchers are convinced that they can successfully eliminate these concerns, and provide them with more secure feasible alternatives, benefit the many different levels of the crowd. The team hoped to prompt consumers to think that what way can be used to promote and support sustainable clothing research and development and the actual application. 
 

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